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major eye diseases

The Human Eye

Major Eye Diseases

The main diseases that affect the eye and cause blindness or visual impairment are cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and refractive errors


A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. It is the most common cause of blindness and is conventionally treated with surgery.

Eye with cataract showing clouding of the lens


Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eye’s optic nerve. It is often associated with a buildup of pressure inside the eye.

Vision with Glaucoma

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is damage to the retina caused by complications of diabetics which eventually lead to blindness

Refractive Error

A refractive error is an error in the focusing of light by the eye that leads to visual acuity.

Refractive Error Correction
Most refractive errors can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses or surgery.

Cornea and Corneal Diseases
The cornea is a protective mask that is as smooth as glass but strong and durable, it helps the eye in the following ways:
1. It shields the eye from germs, dust and other harmful matter
2. It acts as the eye’s outmost lens. It acts as a window to control and focus entry of light into the eye

Common cornea diseases and disorders

The most allergies are those related to pollen, contact lens wear, certain cosmetics, and medication that affect the eye.
Symptoms usually redness, itching, tearing, burning, stinging and watery discharge
Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
It is the swelling, itching ,burning and redness of the conjunctiva that can be caused by bacterial or viral infection or allergy among others. It can be spread from one person to another
Corneal Infections
Cornea can be damaged due to foreign object entering the tissue leading to painful inflammation and corneal infections called keratitis or lead to corneal scarring which can impair vision and may require a corneal transplant.

Dry Eye
Tears are important to the health of the eye. Tears keep the eye moist, help wounds heal and protect the eye against infections.
People with dry eyes produce less quality tears and are unable to keep the cornea surface lubricated and comfortable.